Multiple Sclerosis


Aetiology : unknown (genetic and environmental)

Prevalence : 40-60 / 100 000 inhabitants (most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system : more women than men)


Several clinical forms of MS :

Relapsing-Remitting MS : affects about 85% of MS patients (most common form). The symptoms between two flare-ups disappear entirely, in other words, the lesions are reversible.

Secondary Progressive MS : correspond to the aggravation of relapsing–remitting MS. The lesions between two flare-ups are irreversible. Normally, the disease-modifying agents delay such progression.

Primary Progressive MS : affects approximately 15% of MS patients. The lesions are irreversible from the beginning and worsen with time. Disease-modifying agents are inefficient on this form of MS : it’s an unmet medical need.


Main symptoms :

-Eyesight deficiency (nystagmus, blurry vision)
-Motor disability (monoparesis, paraparesis)
-Cerebellar tremor
-Lhermitte’s phenomenon (uncomfortable electrical sensation in the back or members)


Treatment for crisis :

Corticoids IV, high doses (such as Methylprednisolone)

Main side effects : diabetes induced by the corticotherapy, osteoporosis, electrolytic imbalance leading to hypertension, metabolic troubles, increase the risk of infection, trouble sleeping


à The main objective in this pathology is to prevent the crisis (diminish their number and gravity with the long term treatment).


Long-term treatment :

Disease modifying treatments : Immunomodulatory therapies

Mainly, they try to stop the overactivation of T cells in the blood but also directly in cortex and lymph nodes.

Problems : only effective in the Relapsing-Remitting MS, most of the treatments are injections (subcutaneous SC, intramuscular IM, intraveinous IV), 1 to 3 times a week or everyday which is very constraining for the patient.